There is an old saying in Hindi, " Kos kos par bade paani chaar kos par bani ".
Hindi is also the official language of this state separated from Uttar Pradesh, but if we talk about the local languages, then not one or two but 13 languages ​​are spoken here. There are different forms of these languages. Talking about the history of the languages ​​of Uttarakhand, George Abraham Grierson first worked on them. He classified the languages ​​of Uttarakhand between 1894 and 1927 with the help of revenue department employees. The linguists of Uttarakhand seem to be greatly influenced by Grierson's work, while he had prepared a kind of official document in which the Tibetan languages ​​have not got a special place. Even after him, Dr. Govind Chatak, Chakradhar Bahuguna, Dr. Haridutt Bhatt, Dr. D. Sharma etc. also did remarkable work in the context of the folk languages ​​of Uttarakhand.
Languages of Uttarakhand

Languages ​​Of Uttarakhand - Language Literature And Region-Wise Spoken Vernacular Languages ​​Of Uttarakhand

1) Garhwali: Garhwali language is spoken in all the seven districts of Garhwal division. Forms of Garhwali according to Grierson. Srinagaria, Nagpuria, Badhani, Salani, Tehriyali, Rathi, Dasaulya, Manj Kumaiya. The Garhwali linguist Dr. Govind Chatak called the language spoken in and around Srinagar as ideal Garhwali.

2) Kumaoni: Kumaoni language is spoken in all the six districts of Kumaon division. By the way, the nature of Kumaoni changes slightly in almost every of these districts. The people of the border areas of Garhwal and Kumaon understand and speak the dialect of both the languages. Kumaoni has ten dialects. Kumaiya, Soryali, Askoti and Sirali are spoken in eastern Kumaon. Khasparjia, Chaugarkhiya, Gangoli, Danpuria, Pachhai, and Rochobhainsi are the languages ​​spoken in western Kumaon.

3) Jaunsari : The western hill region of Dehradun district of Garhwal division is called Jaunsar Bhabar. The main language here is Jaunsari. This language is mainly spoken in three tehsils, Chakrata, Kalsi and Tuni. The boundaries of this region are adjacent to Tehri and Uttarkashi. And hence Jaunsari is also spoken in some parts of these districts. George Grierson called it the dialect of the Western Pahari, that is to say, he described it more closely with the dialects of Himachal Pradesh. In this, many words of Punjabi Sanskrit Prakrit and Pali are found.

4) Jaunpuri: It is spoken in Jaunpur block of Tehri district. Dasjula, Paligad, Silvad, District Pali Village Silvad, Idvalasun, Lalur, Chhajula, Saklana belts come in this area. During the princely state of Tehri, this area remained very backward, but its positive side was that it developed a distinct culture language. It is a tribal area. Once this area was also called Yamunpuri which later became Jaunpuri.

5) Rwalty : The western region of Uttarkashi district is called Rawai. This region extends to the valleys of Yamuna and Tons rivers. The language of this region is different from Garhwali or other surrounding areas. This language would have come to be romanticized. He did his PhD from Agra University on the subject of Rwalti and its folk songs.
6) Jad: The language of the Jad tribe living in the Jad Ganga valley of Uttarkashi district is also called Jad language after their name. People of this language will be found in Uttarkashi's Jadong, Nilang Harshil, Tharali, Bhatwani, Dunda Bagori etc. Jad is a part of the Bhotia tribe who had a long trade with Tibet. Hence it is initially written in Tibet's "You Me" script as well.

7) Bangani : The area falling under Mori tehsil of Uttarkashi district is called Bagan. In this region there are three belts, Masmore, Pingal and Kothigad, in which Bangani is spoken.

8) Marchha: The policy of Chamoli district of Garhwal division and the Bhotia tribes living in the Mana valleys speak Marchha and Tolcha languages. Many Tibetan words are spoken in this language. The Niti Valley includes Niti Gamsali and Bampa while the Mana Valley includes Mana Indradhara, Gajkoti, Jyabgad, Benakuli and Pinola.

9) Johari :
It is also a language of Bhotia tribe which is spoken in Munsiyari area of ​​Pithoragarh district. These people also have a long trade with Tibet, Tibetans are also found in Johari.

10) Tharu : The people of Tharu tribe live in some areas of Nepal, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the Terai regions of Kumaon division of Uttarakhand. In Kumaon division, the tribe mainly lives in Khatima and Sitarganj development blocks of Udham Singh Nagar. The people of this tribe have their own separate language which is called Tharu language after their name. This Kannauj is a mixed form of Braj Bhasha and Khari Boli.

11) Buksani: Buksani is the language of the tribe living in the Terai belt from Kumaon to Garhwal. These areas mainly include Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur, Ramnagar, Doiwala, Sahaspur, Bahadarabad, Dugadda, Kotdwar etc.

12) Rad Lvu: Rud Lvu language is mainly spoken in Darma, Vyas and 14 pattas of Dharchula tehsil of Pithoragarh in Kumaon. It is considered a part of the Tibetan Burmese language. Which was spoken by the people of Kirat caste since ancient times. In Darma Valley it is known as Rud Leu, in Chaudas as Bumba Leu and in Beas Valley as Vyukhun Leu.

13) Raji: Raji was a tribe living in the jungles of Kumaon. It was a nomadic tribe that has made permanent residence for some time. People of this tribe live in Pithoragarh, Champawat and Udham Singh Nagar districts of Uttarakhand bordering Nepal.
UNESCO itself prepared a table that included all the languages ​​of the world that are vulnerable or threatened. The two major languages ​​of Uttarakhand "Garhwali" and "Kumaoni" were kept in the vulnerable category in it. Languages ​​like "Jaunsari" and "Jad" are endangered while "Bangani" came under the category of highly endangered. If the current situation does not change, then it may be that in the coming 10 to 12 years, the "Bangani" folk language will end. If people of one generation speak then it is safe, if two generations are speaking then it is in trouble and if only one generation is speaking then that language is in serious trouble".
The main reason for this threat looming over the vernaculars of Uttarakhand is migration. Both the Garhwali Kumaonis are completely dominated by Hindi and English. In reality, when a socially, politically, and economically strong language infiltrates another language's stronghold, the local language is at risk. In such a situation, people underestimate their language and start adopting that language through which they can get employment. People living in different parts of the country or the world by migrating from Uttarakhand are not teaching their native language to their children. Because they feel that it can become a hindrance in the success of children.

After becoming urban, people's attitude towards their language changed. He was starting to find his language inferior in front of Hindi. Whereas in reality it is not so. Garhwali and Kumaoni are said to be richer than Hindi and English in terms of word wealth. There are different words for smell, sound, feeling, taste, touch etc.
Sound related words, chhanman, chhaptaat, ghungraat, chachadat, sunsat, kikalat, gagadat, simanat, there are more than 100 such words which are used for different sounds. There are many words for similar smell like Fukyan, Basyan, Molyan, Chiran, Kutran, Kaun etc. The meaning of saying that the word wealth of these folk languages ​​is very strong but their power was never understood.

These vernaculars can survive only if they are passed on from one generation to another. Wherever we live in Uttarakhand or other than that, if we love our languages, then we have to hand it over to our generation just like the previous generation handed it over to us. Apart from this, one of the most suitable medium is that the state government should make these languages ​​a part of the curriculum. Work is also being done under this. The Garhwali course has been started in the primary classes (1-5) under Pauri block by the District Magistrate of Pauri district. This may prove to be a milestone in this direction. Even though these languages ​​are not included in the 8th schedule of our constitution, But the government can make them a part of the curriculum. Article 345 of the Constitution allows us to do this. It states that the Legislature of a State may adopt any one or more of the languages ​​in use in that State or Hindi as the language or languages ​​to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State. . Not only this, Article 350A also talks about providing education in one's own language at the primary level. A question that is asked for these languages ​​not being languages ​​is that these languages ​​do not have their own script. The one which does not have a script is called a dialect. So even English has no script. In this way, even English is not a language. This question may be relevant now. For not having a language, it is asked that these languages ​​do not have their own script. The one which does not have a script is called a dialect. So even English has no script. In this way, even English is not a language. This question may be relevant now. For not having a language, it is asked that these languages ​​do not have their own script. The one which does not have a script is called a dialect. So even English has no script. In this way, even English is not a language. This question may be relevant now.


When it comes to languages, the place of literature is important. Unfortunately, most of the world's vernaculars do not have written literature. Only one third of the world's languages ​​have written literature. Efforts are being made to create literature in the folk languages ​​of Uttarakhand especially Garhwali, Kumaoni, Jaunsari, Rawalti, Jaunpuri etc. For some time now, but very few people are associated with such a campaign. . Now take the example of Garhwali, in this, magazines like "Chit Patri", Bugyal, Hilans, Anjwal used to be published but they were closed due to weak economic side. The "Dhad" magazine has got a revival due to the efforts of Garhwali poet and senior journalist Ganesh Kushal 'Gani'. This monthly magazine is being published regularly since last few years. Similarly fortnightly newspaper "Rant Raibar". From Kathgodam for last few years "Kumgarh" Patrika is being published which are magazines in both Garhwali and Kumaoni languages. It can be said unfortunate that the attitude of the government towards the local language newspapers and magazines is not positive. A magazine cannot be kept alive for a long time only by individual efforts. The economic side of magazines like "Dhad" and "Kumgarh" is also weak. Because of this, Jaunsar's magazine "Meghali" gets published only once in a year. The languages ​​which are small have unwritten literature like the people there, sayings and stories. Songs idioms, proverbs etc. The good news is that in the Internet world, some people are showing affection for these languages, but in this context, Raji Buksayani, Bangadi, Jad, There is a lack of awareness among the people of languages ​​like Marchha etc. Useful poetry collections have also come up over the years in some vernacular languages, especially Garhwali. Whatever has been written or is being written, the availability of that literature should also be easy.


                                                      Along with the creation of literature, its easy availability is also a very big subject. Today a lot is being written but its availability is limited to limited places. Even today this important literature is far away from the masses.


Source of inspiration: The article "Folk Languages ​​of Uttarakhand" by "Dhamendra Pant ji " published in the National Book Trust's quarterly magazine, Book Sanskriti .


Author: Mr. Kuldeep Singh Rauthan


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